Normalization and Rescaling as Horizontal and Vertical Operations in Your Attribute Data Table or Spreadsheet

Yet Another Review of the Terminology Used to Describe Techniques for Making Multiple Variables Comparable

Ok, here we go again. I wrote in this blog on 30 November 2013 about “Normalization vs. Standardization – Clarification (?) of Key Geospatial Data Processing Terminology using the Example of Toronto Neighbourhood Wellbeing Indicators“. Note the question mark in that title? Its length and that of my title and subtitle today, and the choice of words used in them, will tell you a lot about the challenge at hand: clarifying, reviewing, and settling – once and for all! – the meaning of terms like “normalization”, “standardization”, and “rescaling”. The challenge is related to the processing and combination of multiple variables in GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis, for example in my ongoing professional elective GEO641 GIS and Decision Support, and extends to many situations in which we utilize multi-variate statistical or analytical tools for geographic inquiry.

In two other blog posts, I discussed the need to normalize raw-count variables for choropleth mapping. On 26 March 2020, I wrote about “The Graduated Colour Map: A Minefield for Armchair Cartographers“. The armchair cartographer’s greatest gaffe: mapping raw-count variables as choropleth or graduated-colour maps. In a post dated 3 November 2020 on “How to Lie with COVID-19 Maps … or tell some truths through refined cartography“, I go into more detail about why to use “relative metrics” on choropleth maps. These metrics can take the form of a percentage, proportion, ratio, rate, or density. They are obtained by dividing a raw-count variable by a suitable reference variable. In class, I used the example of unemployment, where the City of Toronto provides the number of unemployed people in each its 140 neighbourhoods.

Continue reading “Normalization and Rescaling as Horizontal and Vertical Operations in Your Attribute Data Table or Spreadsheet”

Understanding Risk – Ordered Weighted Averaging and Relative vs Absolute Risk Reduction

One of my students has just completed an individual research paper on “Investigating the use of GIS-Based Ordered Weighted Averaging in Wildfire Restoration”. Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) is a multi-criteria decision analysis technique that allows the decision-maker to mathematically define their attitude towards risk. The available strategies range from risk-averse to risk-taking approaches, based on a simple parameter setting. That parameter determines whether we emphasize the negative or positive aspects of a possible solution. Under a risk-averse strategy, we focus on the worst aspects and choose the solution that has the “least bad” outcomes. Under a risk-taking strategy, we focus on the best aspects and choose the solution with the “greatest good” outcome. The OWA also allows any number of strategies between these extremes, including an intermediate approach under which emphasis is balanced between the strong and weak outcomes.

Decision strategies defined by the ordered weighted averaging (OWA) technique. Source: Ron Eastman, Directions Magazine 14 Dec 2000, https://www.directionsmag.com/article/4036
Continue reading “Understanding Risk – Ordered Weighted Averaging and Relative vs Absolute Risk Reduction”

Geospatial Analysis for Pandemic Response

Why studying Applied Geography is more important than ever

Today was going to be Ryerson University’s Open House for prospective students, those already admitted for Fall 2020 as well as those considering a late application to our programs. The event was cancelled as a consequence of the distancing measures taken to slow the spread of the novel coronavirus. As undergraduate program director for the BA Honours in Geographic Analysis and past graduate program director for the MSA in Spatial Analysis, I would like to share some thoughts about why it is now particularly important to recruit bright students into Geography programs.

Continue reading “Geospatial Analysis for Pandemic Response”

Reflections on a Decade and a Half of Teaching Cartography and Geovisualization

This past fall semester of 2019 marked my 15th time teaching our graduate cartography course. When I joined Ryerson University in August 2006, I had already taught MSA 9050 Digital Cartography at the University of Toronto for three years, in Fall 2003, 2004, and 2005. The course was part of the joint Master of Spatial Analysis (MSA) program between UofT’s and Ryerson’s Geography departments, and was also cross-listed with UofT’s graduate course GGR 1913H of the same title. The course had been taught by Byron Moldofsky, who retired as Manager of UofT’s GIS and Cartography Office in 2017, after 37 years of service as a staff member, and continues to be active as an executive member of the Canadian Cartographic Association and a free-lance cartographer.

Continue reading “Reflections on a Decade and a Half of Teaching Cartography and Geovisualization”

2018 Meeting of the American Association of Geographers

This week, geographers from far and wide will converge onto New Orleans, Louisiana, for the 2018 edition of the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Geographers. Ryerson’s geography faculty and graduate students are no exception and there are even two senior undergraduate students presenting. Here are their research topics and presentation details from the conference program at https://aag.secure-abstracts.com/AAG%20Annual%20Meeting%202018/abstracts-gallery, sorted by abstract title:

“Solidarity” in the Migration Literature: A Critical Review of the Concept

Authors: Harald Bauder*, Ryerson University
Topics: Migration, Political Geography, Immigration/Transnationalism
Keywords: migration, solidarity, activism, borders, political geography
Session Type: Paper
Scheduler ID: FRI-044-3:20 p.m.
Day: 4/13/2018
Start / End Time: 3:20 PM / 5:00 PM
Room: Poydras, Sheraton, 3rd Floor

A mega index paradigm for simplifying sustainable development assessment

Authors: Richard Shaker*, Ryerson University
Topics: Sustainability Science, Urban and Regional Planning, Spatial Analysis & Modeling
Keywords: Composite index, Factor analysis, Geometric mean, Mega index, Sustainability assessment, Sustainable development planning, Sustainability indicators
Session Type: Paper
Scheduler ID: TUE-013-8:00 a.m.
Day: 4/10/2018
Start / End Time: 8:00 AM / 9:40 AM
Room: Galerie 3, Marriott, 2nd Floor

An approach to modelling tree root architecture in virtual urban growing conditions

Authors: Justin Miron*, Ryerson University, Geography and Environmental Studies, Andrew Millward, Ryerson University, Geography and Environmental Studies
Topics: Environmental Science, Quantitative Methods, Urban Geography
Keywords: urban forest, tree root, model, simulation
Session Type: Paper
Scheduler ID: FRI-085-5:20 p.m.
Day: 4/13/2018
Start / End Time: 5:20 PM / 7:00 PM
Room: Proteus, Sheraton, 8th Floor

An Assessment of a Multinational Retail Chain on Local Economic Development, Investigating the Impact on Commercial Activities using Geographic and Spatial Analysis

Authors: Brian Ceh*, Ryerson University, Tony Hernandez, Ryerson University, Florence Ipaye, Ryerson University
Topics: Business Geography, Economic Geography, Urban Geography
Keywords: Walmart, retail, geography, box-store, store
Session Type: Paper
Scheduler ID: FRI-026-8:00 a.m.
Day: 4/13/2018
Start / End Time: 8:00 AM / 9:40 AM
Room: Bacchus, Marriott, 4th Floor

Cardiovascular health in the city: an analysis of the health risks of exposure to environmental stressors in Toronto, Canada

Authors: Danielle Sadakhom*, Ryerson University, Tor Oiamo, Ryerson University
Topics: Geography and Urban Health, Spatial Analysis & Modeling, Canada
Keywords: environmental health, health geography, cardiovascular disease, Toronto
Session Type: Paper
Scheduler ID: FRI-008-10:00 a.m.
Day: 4/13/2018
Start / End Time: 10:00 AM / 11:40 AM
Room: Studio 8, Marriott, 2nd Floor

Defining Community Tolerance Levels of noise and assessing the influence of environmental context on responses to noise exposure in the City of Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Authors: Desislava Stefanova*, Ryerson University, Tor Oiamo, Ryerson University
Topics: Geography and Urban Health, Urban Geography, Canada
Keywords: Environmental noise, Noise annoyance, Noise perception
Session Type: Paper
Scheduler ID: TUE-083-10:00 a.m.
Day: 4/10/2018
Start / End Time: 10:00 AM / 11:40 AM
Room: Endymion, Sheraton, 8th Floor

Deforestation at Tommy Thompson Park: solutions for urban double-crested cormorant disturbance

Authors: Daniellle Marcoux-Hunter*, Ryerson University, Andrew Millward, Ryerson University
Topics: Environmental Science
Keywords: urban forestry, double-crested cormorant, Tommy Thompson Park, restoration
Session Type: Paper
Scheduler ID: FRI-085-5:20 p.m.
Day: 4/13/2018
Start / End Time: 5:20 PM / 7:00 PM
Room: Proteus, Sheraton, 8th Floor

Developing a Typology of Integrated Retail Mixed-Use Properties

Authors: Christopher Daniel*, Centre for the Study of Commercial Activity – Ryerson University, Tony Hernandez, Centre for the Study of Commercial Activity, Ryerson University
Topics: Business Geography, Urban and Regional Planning, Applied Geography
Keywords: Business Geography, Retail Geography, Urban Planning
Session Type: Paper
Scheduler ID: THU-026-8:00 a.m.
Day: 4/12/2018
Start / End Time: 8:00 AM / 9:40 AM
Room: Bacchus, Marriott, 4th Floor

Equity goals and implementation strategies: A meta-analysis of urban forestry policy documents for municipalities across North America

Authors: Amber Grant*, Ryerson University, Environmental Applied Science and Management, Andrew Millward, Ryerson University, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Sara Edge, Ryerson University, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Ekow Ashun-Stone, Ryerson University, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies
Topics: Urban Geography, Social Geography
Keywords: urban forestry, tree cover, cities, management plan, equity, justice,
Session Type: Paper
Scheduler ID: THU-102-3:20 p.m.
Day: 4/12/2018
Start / End Time: 3:20 PM / 5:00 PM
Room: Bourbon Room, Astor, Mezzanine

Geodemographic Visualisation of Foreign Upscale Retail in Canada’s Major Cities

Authors: Stephen Swales*, Ryerson University, K. Forsythe, Ryerson University, Nicole Serrafero, Ryerson University
Topics: Business Geography, Geographic Information Science and Systems, Applied Geography
Keywords: geodemographics, business geography, upscale retail, Canadian cities
Session Type: Paper
Scheduler ID: FRI-026-8:00 a.m.
Day: 4/13/2018
Start / End Time: 8:00 AM / 9:40 AM
Room: Bacchus, Marriott, 4th Floor

Impact of Box Stores in the Exurban Region: Case Study of a Large Metropolitan Region, Toronto, Canada

Authors: Oskaycan Turanoglu*, Ryerson University, Brian Ceh, Ryerson University, Nana Ntim, Ryerson University
Topics: Business Geography, Economic Geography, Urban Geography
Keywords: box-store, walmart, Toronto, retail
Session Type: Paper
Scheduler ID: THU-026-8:00 a.m.
Day: 4/12/2018
Start / End Time: 8:00 AM / 9:40 AM
Room: Bacchus, Marriott, 4th Floor

Implications of Large Retail Stores on Commercial Activities by Suburban and Inner City Location, A Comprehensive Metropolitan Analysis

Authors: Nana Ntim*, , Brian Ceh, Ryerson University, Oskaycan Turanoglu, Ryerson University, Tony Hernandez, Ryerson University
Topics: Economic Geography, Urban Geography, Canada
Keywords: retail, Toronto, box-store, walmart,
Session Type: Paper
Scheduler ID: THU-026-10:00 a.m.
Day: 4/12/2018
Start / End Time: 10:00 AM / 11:40 AM
Room: Bacchus, Marriott, 4th Floor

Location strategies and retail disruption: from trade areas to customer moments

Authors: Tony Hernandez*, Ryerson University
Topics: Business Geography
Keywords: Retail, business model, customer behaviour
Session Type: Paper
Scheduler ID: FRI-026-10:00 a.m.
Day: 4/13/2018
Start / End Time: 10:00 AM / 11:40 AM
Room: Bacchus, Marriott, 4th Floor

Practitioner perspectives on the role of Spatial Big Data in retail decision making.

Authors: Joseph Aversa*, Ryerson University, Tony Hernandez , Ryerson University, Sean Doherty, Wilfrid Laurier University
Topics: Business Geography, Marketing Geography, Economic Geography
Keywords: Big Data, Retail Location Planning, Retail Decision Making
Session Type: Paper
Scheduler ID: THU-026-10:00 a.m.
Day: 4/12/2018
Start / End Time: 10:00 AM / 11:40 AM
Room: Bacchus, Marriott, 4th Floor

Production of risk: Multiple interacting exposures and unequal vulnerability in a coastal community

Authors: Greg Oulahen*, Ryerson University
Topics: Hazards and Vulnerability, Hazards, Risks, and Disasters, Human-Environment Geography
Keywords: hazards, risk, exposure, vulnerability, flood, Crescent Beach
Session Type: Paper
Scheduler ID: TUE-089-10:00 a.m.
Day: 4/10/2018
Start / End Time: 10:00 AM / 11:40 AM
Room: Muses, Sheraton, 8th Floor

Quantifying scalar ecological processes in an urban forest using drone-based image acquisition

Authors: Christopher Scarpone*, Ryerson University, Environmental Applied Science and Management, Andrew Millward, Ryerson University, Geography and Environmental Studies
Topics: Environmental Science, Quantitative Methods, Remote Sensing
Keywords: urban forest, ecological restoration, machine learning, UAV, drone, LiDAR
Session Type: Paper
Scheduler ID: THU-102-10:00 a.m.
Day: 4/12/2018
Start / End Time: 10:00 AM / 11:40 AM
Room: Bourbon Room, Astor, Mezzanine

Socioeconomic status, greenspace and exposure to multiple environmental stressors in Toronto, Canada

Authors: Tor Oiamo*, Ryerson University
Topics: Geography and Urban Health, Hazards and Vulnerability, Spatial Analysis & Modeling
Keywords: Environment; noise; air pollution; greenspace; health; equity
Session Type: Paper
Scheduler ID: WED-015-10:00 a.m.
Day: 4/11/2018
Start / End Time: 10:00 AM / 11:40 AM
Room: Galerie 5, Marriott, 2nd Floor

Spatial Access to Community and Specialized Mental Health Care in Toronto: A Case of Mental Health Crises

Authors: Lu Wang*, Ryerson University
Topics: Medical and Health Geography, Spatial Analysis & Modeling, Applied Geography
Keywords: Spatial accessibility, mental health, Two-Step Floating Catchment Area model
Session Type: Paper
Scheduler ID: WED-069-5:20 p.m.
Day: 4/11/2018
Start / End Time: 5:20 PM / 7:00 PM
Room: Estherwood, Sheraton, 4th Floor

The Survival Strategies of Dollarama in the Era of Online Retailing

Authors: Shuguang Wang*, Ryerson University
Topics: Business Geography, Canada, Economic Geography
Keywords: retail geography, business geography, Canada, Dollarama
Session Type: Paper
Scheduler ID: FRI-026-10:00 a.m.
Day: 4/13/2018
Start / End Time: 10:00 AM / 11:40 AM
Room: Bacchus, Marriott, 4th Floor

Towards Urban Revitalization for All: Reflections on Participatory Research, Action and Equity in Digitally Enabled Citizenship

Authors: Sara Edge*, Ryerson University, Rachel Singer, Ryerson University, Ekow Stone, Ryerson University, Emma Beattie, Ryerson University, Amber Grant, Ryerson University, Andrew Millward, Ryerson University
Topics: Urban Geography, Geography and Urban Health, Political Geography
Keywords: urban revitalization, equity, displacement, lived experience, PAR, digital citizenship
Session Type: Paper
Scheduler ID: FRI-049-3:20 p.m.
Day: 4/13/2018
Start / End Time: 3:20 PM / 5:00 PM
Room: Napoleon A2, Sheraton, 3rd Floor

Gaining Work Experience in Russia – My Internship Placement at ESRI CIS

Guest post by Nikita Markevich, BA in Geographic Analysis candidate, Ryerson University

As an international student, I was facing some bureaucratic hurdles obtaining an internship in Canada. However, my program, the BA in Geographic Analysis, requires the completion of 350 hours of work experience, usually on paid practicum placements in the private or public sector. Given the need to complete this requirement for timely graduation next spring, my attention shifted to my home country, Russia. I was able to arrange an internship with ESRI CIS, the Russian subsidiary of the world-leading Geographic Information Systems (GIS) vendor, ESRI Inc. The placement in Moscow was arranged through the help of networking and contacts I made during the 2015 International Geographical Union conference in Moscow, which I attended as well.

During my placement between May and July 2016, I have obtained valuable experience which shaped my sense of the work environment of a large GIS vendor. I was attached to the GIS specialist team and my supervisor helped me a lot on the first stages of my placement. I was introduced to my project, which involved creation of a massive geo-database coordinated by ESRI software packages, particularly ArcMap 10.2 and ArcCatalog 10.2. I was tasked with data mining routines, maintaining attribute tables and working with relational databases. The project focused on the transformation of polygonal data into a geo-database according to technical standards, which were set by a client.

Once the routine workflow was formed, ESRI offered me a choice of attending additional ESRI certified training courses, from which I completed two: ESRI ArcGIS 10.3 Essential Workflows and ESRI ArcGIS 10.3 Effective Editing. Both courses helped to solidify my skills in editing polygonal data and conduct analyses using geoprocessing tools. Working in an environment with experienced professionals in the GIS field, especially programmers involved in the creation of Web GIS scripts, helped me improve my GIS programming skills, including those, which facilitate and automate routines related to attribute information editing.

Overall, my summer internship at ESRI CIS allowed me to practice and deepen the essential skills of a GIS specialist, which will come as an asset in my employment search in Canada. I also spent some time exploring my hometown – visiting museums and suburbs – and traveling to the neighbouring Baltic countries Latvia and Estonia.

Geography – The Secret Sauce of Data Analytics

For GIS Day 2016, the Department of Geography and Environmental Studies joined forces with Environics Analytics, “Canada’s premier marketing and analytical services company”. This year’s Environics Analytics User Conference on November 16 attracted 675 data analysts from 350 organizations and featured 16 client presentations, numerous software demos, and one great party!

eauc2016-alliwitz-secret-sauce eauc2016-alliwitz-tweet-tps-ea-geo

The core role of Geography and location in data analytics was emphasized by many presenters. Environics Analytics founder and president, @statslady Jan Kestle, is quoted with identifying “Geography as the secret sauce” that integrates data for advanced analytics. The Department of Geography and Environmental Studies at Ryerson University received shout-outs and accolades for training the next generation of data analysts through its BA in Geographic Analysis and MSA in Spatial Analysis programs.

eauc2016-ryersongeo-maps4 eauc2016-alliwitz-msa-students3

We joined the Environics Analytics User Conference with a GIS Day-themed display of geovisualization projects from the MSA cartography course and with a 15-year reunion to celebrate the 2001 class of MSA graduates, the first-ever group of students receiving a graduate degree from Ryerson University. Since then, over 300 students have obtained the MSA degree and joined the ranks of data analysts, who shape the regional economy, public services, and environment.

A timeline of all conference-related tweets can be found at https://storify.com/ClausRinner/geography-the-secret-sauce-of-data-analytics. Thank you, Allison Urowitz (@alliwitz), for the pertinent tweets reproduced above.

Welcome Home, GIS Professionals – Ryerson Geography at URISA’s 54th Annual Conference

The Urban and Regional Information Systems Association (URISA) held its first conference on “Urban Planning Information Systems and Programs” in 1963 at the University of Southern California. Now dubbed “GIS-Pro”, the conference and URISA as an organization are the preeminent destinations for exchange of best-practices among Geographic Information Systems (GIS) professionals. This year, Canada, the birth place of GIS, welcomed URISA back for its 54th annual conference held at Toronto’s Westin Harbour Castle hotel from Oct 31-Nov 3, 2016.

The conference drew over 350 participants, with some 200 from Canada (including 150 from Ontario) and most of the remainder from the United States. Representatives from Australia, Barbados, Japan, Malaysia, Republic of Korea, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, and the United Kingdom rounded out the pre-conference attendee list. URISA is greatly engaged in the professional development of its members, and consequently, over 100 participants held the GISP designation. URISA is a founding member of the GIS Certification Institute, which awards the “GISP” status and was an exhibitor and workshop organizer at the conference. URISA’s Vanguard Cabinet of young geospatial professionals, URISA’s GISCorps of worldwide GIS volunteers, its GIS Management Institute, and its regional chapters were all involved in organizing the conference. In one of the conference highlights, Esri Canada founder and president Alex Miller was inducted to the URISA GIS Hall of Fame. More information about URISA can be found at http://www.urisa.org/main/about-us/.

Title slide - 3D-printed geography

Ryerson’s Department of Geography and Environmental Studies attended the conference with three speakers and ten student volunteers. In the unusual format of a luncheon presentation and discussion table (https://gispro2016.sched.org/event/6nuR/hosted-lunch-vendor-spark-lunch-presentations-roundtable-discussions), I presented work with Dr. Claire Oswald on “3D-Printed Geography for Education, Outreach, and More?” This was a summary of one-and-a-half years of 3D-printing of terrain models and cityscapes, focusing on the processing of geospatial data into 3D printer-compliant format, and on the reception of this project among potential users such as conservation authorities. Our slides are available at http://gis.blog.ryerson.ca/files/2016/11/3d-printed-geographies_urisa-gispro2016.pdf. A previous review of the project is available at https://storify.com/ClausRinner/3d-printed-geographies-one-year-in.

My former graduate students Justin Pierre and Richard Wen had signed up for a session on open-source geospatial software (https://gispro2016.sched.org/event/6nv7/free-puppies-and-solutions-open-source-and-commercial-software). Justin presented on his Master of Spatial Analysis (MSA) major research paper “Developing an Argumentation Platform in an Open Source Stack”. His map-based discussion forum on Toronto’s bike lane network runs on Ryerson’s cloud at https://cartoforum.com/bikelanes/, albeit not always as reliably as we wish. Richard outlined his MSA thesis research on “Using Open Source Python Packages for Machine Learning on Vector Geodata”. He applied the “random forest” algorithm to the task of detecting outliers in OpenStreetMap data, with the goal of developing tools for semi-automated data input and quality control in volunteered geographic data. Richard’s code and thesis are available at https://github.com/rrwen/msa-thesis. Both of these student were part of the Geothink SSHRC Parternship Grant, http://geothink.ca/, which supported their conference participation.

RyersonGeo booth with AR-sandbox at GIS-Pro2016

@RyersonGeo also had a booth in the GIS-Pro 2016 exhibit hall. While conference participants were interested in the Department’s programs and research expertise, the main attraction of our booth was an augmented-reality (AR) sandbox. The sandbox was built, set up, and staffed by our collaborators in the GIS team at the Central Lake Ontario Conservation Authority (CLOCA – http://cloca.ca/). CLOCA staff had attended Dr. Oswald’s GeovisUW workshop (https://storify.com/ClausRinner/geovisuw-workshop-ryersongeo) in June 2016 and were inspired by the visit of Ryerson’s Digital Media Experience Lab, which demo’ed an AR sandbox. In subsequent discussions about public outreach around surface- and groundwater protection, we proceeded with 3D-prining of CLOCA’s watershed geography and terrain, while CLOCA staff endeavoured to build the sandbox. The two displays were used by CLOCA at the 2016 Durham Children’s Groundwater Festival in late September. At the GIS-Pro 2016 conference, some participants were wondering about combining the two technologies, while others were interested in using the sandbox to model real-world terrain and simulating flooding. While accurate modeling of terrain and water flow may prove difficult, we are indeed planning to test the sandbox with semi-realistic scenarios.

CLOCA's AR-sandbox at GIS-Pro2016

In conclusion, applied GIS researchers and practicing GIS professionals are a friendly, close-knit group. The conference volunteers from our BA in Geographic Analysis, BA in Environment and Urban Sustainability, and MSA in Spatial Analysis programs were given a lot of free time and thoroughly enjoyed the conference. They were truly impressed by the large number and variation in GIS applications presented, and left the conference with a greater sense for the professional community. For me, the conference confirmed that research and development of GIS should be led by geographers, within Geography departments, as we are best positioned to understand the professional end-user’s needs, yet also have the technical expertise, at least @RyersonGeo, to contribute to GIS R&D.

Leveraging Open Data: International Perspectives Presented at URISA’s GIS-Pro 2016 Conference

Guest post by Sarah Greene (@SarahAGreene), Master of Spatial Analysis (MSA) candidate, Ryerson University

This past week, URISA held its 54th annual GIS-Pro conference in Toronto, bringing together GIS professionals and businesses from around the world. The conference provided many interesting sessions including one focused entirely on open data. This session, titled “Leveraging Open Data” (https://gispro2016.sched.org/event/6nun/leveraging-open-data), included government as well as private sector perspectives.

The session began with a presentation from the Government of North Carolina, discussing the importance of metadata. They are currently collaborating with a number of agencies to create and share a metadata profile to help others open up their data and understand how to implement the standards suggested. They have produced a living document which can be accessed through their webpage http://nconemap.com/DiscoverGetData/Metadata.aspx.

The next speaker at the session represented Pitkin County in Colorado. They represent an open data success story with a number of great resources available for download on their website including high quality aerial imagery. An important aspect to their open data project was their engagement with their local community to understand what data should be opened, and then marketing those datasets which were released.

The Government of Ontario was also present as this session, presenting on the current status of open data for the province. The Ontario Government promotes an Open by Default approach and currently has over 500 datasets from 49 agencies available to download through their portal at https://www.ontario.ca/search/data-catalogue?sort=asc. They are working towards continuing to increase their open datasets available.

A presentation by MapYourProperty (http://mapyourproperty.com/) provided an interesting perspective from the private sector using open data to successfully run their business. They heavily depend on visualizing open data to provide a web-based mapping application for the planning and real estate community to search properties, map zoning information and create a due diligence report based on the information found. This is one example of many that exist in the private sector of open data helping build new companies, or help existing companies thrive.

Lastly, a representative from Esri Canada’s (http://esri.ca/) BC office wrapped up the session reminding us all of the importance of opening data. This included highlighting the seemingly endless benefits to open data, including providing information to help make decisions, supporting innovation, creating smart cities and building connections. Of course, open data is big business for Esri too, with the addition of ArcGIS Open Data as a hosted open data catalog to the ArcGIS Online platform.

This session showcased some great initiatives taking place in Canada and the United States that are proving the importance of opening up data and how this can be done successfully. It is exciting to see what has been taking place locally and internationally and it will be even more exciting to see what happens in the future, as both geospatial and a-spatial data products continue to become more openly available.